عنوان مقاله [English]
Today, more and better understanding of Iranian traditional arts requires the use of new approaches in the field of higher art studies. Iconology is an approach that analyzes works of art considering the political, social, and economic contexts of each period. In this way, art is introduced as a document from a historical period and finally it is possible to achieve the semantic content of the work. In this research, the Buraq motif has been considered by using iconological studies to identify the backgrounds of formation and inner layers of this theme and to achieve its common visual format. The research questions are as follows: Where is the origin of this icon? What is the semantic role of the inner layers of this motif and what are the factors affecting its formation? This research has been done in a library method. After collecting 26 samples by available sampling method; The images are described, analyzed and rooted, and the final analysis is performed by reaching the visual template of this Icon. According to the results, Buraq is a horse with a human head that always has a hat or a crown and a necklace and its toe are like cow hoof and its tail is like a peacock tail and in half of the cases it is drawn with open wings. In many cases, his skin is spotted. In this research, by comparing the results of visual study with literary, religious and other fields studies, it is concluded that the formal and semantic roots of Buraq icon in Iran go back to millennia BC and has continued to this day. It was used in various works through the art history such as cylindrical seals of Sumerian deeds, horse bridles in Lorestan bronzes, part of Pazyryk carpets, Achaemenid cylindrical seals, Seljuk lusterware tiles, paintings of the Ascension of the Prophet Mohammad, Safavid tiles and the rugs of the contemporary era. Although this icon has faced a slight apparent difference in each period, taking into account social conditions and general knowledge, to this day the symbolic meaning and the visual shape of the thing has not diminished and it is likely that the artist’s goal was to combine science, art and religion. The emphasis has been more and more on the meaning of God-like, spiritual and religious in order to draw and introduce a design in accordance with the dignity of the Prophet Mohammad in the public belief. Overall, the results indicate that in different eras, this image has been a symbol of courage, strength, light and speed. In the pre-Islamic period, by drawing a masculine face and adding a horn or horned crown and in the post-Islamic period by adding a peacock’s tail, wings, crown and necklace, an aspect of holiness and divinity has been exhibited.